Every now and then I you get surprised when you travel interstate or, for example, to NZ and coffee culture seems very similar to Melbourne but you order a drink and realise that people use this name to call something else (even though I thought we all read Barista techniques). So let me try to put together the typical cafe menu as we have it in Melbourne. I ask people from different states here and maybe from the US comment on that. I guess the info should go to Wikipedia at some point in time
Espresso=Short Black - 30ml - served in demitasse or a glass
Ristretto - no more than a lick - 20ml
Long Black - about 60ml of hot water topped with double shot of espresso
Macchiatto - short black with a dollop of foam and a touch of milk (served in a small glass)
Long Macchiatto - Long black with a dollop of foam and a touch of milk (served in a ceramic cup)
Latte - shot of espresso and dense stretched milk with roughly 10mm of foam on top - served in a glass 210ml
Piccolo (not quite standard drink though) - shot of espresso and about twice as much milk to make about 100ml drink, 10mm of foam on top, served in a glass(?)
Flat White - shot of espresso and steamed milk on top, no more than 5mm of foam - served in a ceramic cup 210ml
Cappuccino - shot of espresso with stretched milk, more than 10mm of foam on top, served in a ceramic cup, 210ml. Yes, can have choc sprinkles on top.
Affogatto - shot of espresso on top of a ball of ice-cream, served in a cup.
Dopio - double shot (of espresso or ristretto if its a d. r.)

I know that NZ flat white typically has more foam than 5mm, very close to latte in my undestanding. Please enlighten me on the differences.