Firstly its spelt palate, don't worry i thought it was spelt like that at first too.
To develop your palate, its best if you can either find proper tasting notes or someone who has a well developed palate to practice with or just goto cupping session on a regular basis (that's how i developed mine). At first it'll be hard to distinguish, either because you can't separate the flavours or you haven't actually tasted them before. Eating alot of different foods, knowing what they taste like helps alot for association. Then just keep practising by drinking alot of coffee and trying to analyse it. Hey at least its an excuse to drink lots of coffee =P