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Best thing to do is, leave the beans in the calico bag they came in and store in a cool, dry, and dark space that has at least a little natural ventilation. Stored like this, the beans can last up to three years or more though it is best to try and use them sooner if you can. Fresh is always best, as they say.
After roasting and provided the whole beans are stored in 1-Way Valve bags, they can be stored inside a kitchen cupboard in a similar way to the storage of green beans, but not in the same place. Green coffee has a remarkable ability to absorb aromas from the immediate environs so you dont want them stashed next to something that might emit odours. Theres no hard and fast rule but you should try to aim to consume your roasted coffee before 3-4 weeks from the roast date, providing your storage location is up to scratch.
Ground freshly roasted coffee on the other hand goes stale within minutes of being ground so only ever grind what you intend using just before you brew. That way, you will be assured of a beautiful cuppa every time.... :)