DrT (Mister T went back to uni and got a PHD??),
So many good questions.
The storage thing has been discussed quite a bit, so perhaps a search of the site might turn up some good info.
Generally speaking, green beans can last for a couple of years as long as the conditions are good. This usually means a calico bag (or something that breathes) and low relative humidity. There are other factors, but these are the main ones.
Roasted beans, cool, dry and dark is correct. Light does effect the freshness. Not sure if it is all light or just sunlight, but I play it safe and have ceramic jars. My machine is by the kitchen window, so direct sunlight does come in there. For excess beans, I store in zip lock bags in the pantry away from light (as these are see through on one side).
Ground beans - Should be consumed within 2 hours really. However, I do grind a batch each week for plunger (work) and take it in a tin. Not airtight, but pretty close. Coffee remains way more drinkable than anything else on offer.
There are articles all over the place about storing whole bean or ground coffee in the fridge or freezer. I reckon it is all a bit of overkill. Fresh is best, thats it! If youre an obsessive like me (and worried about running out), then you do an extra roast each week just in case. Sometimes it gets used as the primary coffee, sometimes it gets relegated to the plunger, sometimes it gets blended with other bits and on a couple of occassions, it even got dumped.
Grinder - the Breville will not cut it for any serious machine. What machine do you have?
The Sunbeam is really the minimum you should consider, but I would say - call a sponsor and talk about getting one that will last you a while. Good grinders can grind for a lowere level machine, lower level grinders CANNOT do it for a higher level machine.
As for "german" coffee. Not sure. Perhaps one of the coffee professionals on the site will know. Best I can come up with is efficient coffee or coffee with no sense of humour.